Scientific publications are a fundamental aspect of the career of a researcher and the progress of the scientific community; as a result, there are also many positive impacts on the life of every person.
Every researcher and academic carrying out an adequate research activity can ask and watch the request that their results and innovative discoveries in given research be published in scientific journals be fulfilled; this goal is very coveted because it can positively affect personal career through high-level job offers, the advancement and improvement of economic and career conditions, the increase of respect and intellectual recognition by fellow scientists and perhaps even a wider public (non-experts). Moreover, even public and private companies, for which the researcher publishes his discoveries, suffer from the value and merit of the scientific community, this can result in positive publicity and solidification of value and reputation in the eyes of potential collaborators, investors, etc.
The scientific community is affected by the impact of the sharing of scientific articles and the updating process on the results achieved by their scientific colleagues in acquiring new information that helps to develop updated hypotheses and thus to advance further scientific discoveries and inventions. Sharing provides a solid basis for carrying on or starting new research.
There are various ways, both formal and informal, to share comprehensive research with the scientific community and beyond; the traditional means of communicating research results remains publication in the scientific journal (usually set up by educated, for-profit, and non-profit companies, such as the university press, scientific societies, and associations), the core of the scientific enterprise and collective register of knowledge. The research continues thanks to the continuous dialogue allowed by scientific journals, the repository of accumulated knowledge in a given field where it is possible to discuss results that add new pieces to the results previously published by others or announce alternative or contradictory conclusions to those of other authors. For this reason, it is also important that the results and analyses, successes and failures (to avoid unnecessary efforts), and the prospects of many years are recorded in the literature.
Literature allows an individual researcher to avoid needlessly repeating work already done so that they can build on existing work and contribute something new.
Newspaper articles may be empirical study reports, literature reviews, theoretical articles, methodological articles, and case studies. They may be primary publications, uninterpreted, original or new material, or secondary sources of information that interpret, include, describe or draw conclusions based on works written by others.
Different academic disciplines have different styles of publication, but concerning certain characteristics of publications, members of the scientific community generally agree that:
- the articles represent research not previously published;
- the articles are archived (i. e. recoverable);
- the data and products of the published articles are part of a cultural movement to promote transparency,
- they contain important methodological elements on their design, reproducibility, and confidence in the scientific literature;
- articles are examined by colleagues before they are accepted or rejected by a newspaper.
On the last point, peer review must be an operation encouraged by researchers and publishers as a way of ensuring confidence in the literature and good communication of science, transparency in data and results, and their reproducibility by other scientists.
Closely related to the points mentioned above, but mandatory since they concern ethical and legal principles, the objectives of the publications are:
- ensure the accuracy of scientific knowledge;
- protect the rights, privacy, and well-being of research participants;
- protect intellectual property rights;
- not to engage in plagiarism.
American Psychological Association. (2020), Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (7th Edition). Washington, DC.
Committee on Responsibilities of Authorship in the Biological Sciences, National Research Council. (2003), Sharing Publication-Related Data and Materials: Responsibilities of Authorship in the Life Sciences. Free PDF was downloaded from: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10613.html
Elsevier. (2017), Ethics in Research & Publication.
Lee, C. J., & Moher, D. (2017). Promote scientific integrity via journal peer review data. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Vol. 357, Issue 6348, pp. 256-257. DOI: 10.1126/science.aan4141.