Research is complete only when the results are shared with the scientific community, although such sharing is accomplished in various ways, both formal and informal, the traditional means of communicating the results of research is the scientific journal.

The scientific journal is the deposit of knowledge accumulated in a field.

The results and analyzes, successes and failures and prospects of many years are recorded in the literature. Familiarity with literature allows an individual researcher to avoid unnecessarily repeating the work that has already been done before, to build on existing work and, in turn, to contribute something new.

Just as every researcher benefits from the publication process, then the scientific body literature depends on its vitality on the active participation of individual researchers.

Authors of scientific articles contribute more to literature when they communicate in a clear and concise way.

Journal articles are often reports of empirical studies, literature reviews, theoretical articles, methodological articles or case studies. They are primary or original publications.

Members of the scientific community generally agree that the characteristics of these publications are:

  • the articles represent researches not previously published;
  • articles are examined by colleagues before being accepted or rejected by a newspaper;
  • the articles are archived (that is, recoverable for future reference).

Style does not imply any inherent right or wrong. It is simply a conventional way of presenting information that is designed to facilitate communication.

Different academic disciplines have different styles of publication.

On the contrary, the basic ethical and legal principles are the basis of all research and academic publications. These long-standing principles are designed to achieve three goals:

  • ensure the accuracy of scientific knowledge;
  • protect the rights and well-being of research participants;
  • protect intellectual property rights.

The writers of social and behavioral sciences work to support these goals and follow the principles established by their professional associations. The following guide is taken from the “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct” (, which contains rules that address the reporting and publication of scientific data. Note that the APA Code of Ethics is not a static document, it can be reviewed and updated over time. Updates appear on the site as soon as available.

Bibliographic references

American Psychological Association(2013), Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th Edition). Washington, DC